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Bishop pine on area of Inverness Ridge that did not burn in 1995 fire. 

All photos of bishop pine on this page were taken at Point Reyes National Seashore. 

BISHOP PINE

Pinus muricata

Pinaceae

Bishop pine is another of the fire-adapted, California closed-cone pines. It always occurs within a few miles of the coast, scattered from Humboldt county to southern California, plus Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa islands. There's also an an outlier population near San Vicente, Baja California Norte. Bishop pine has been said to hybridize with Monterey pine, which some authorities think unlikely, and there remain differences of opinion as to its relationship to offshore island species. It is highly variable on many counts, and some of the northern and southern populations are unable to breed with each other.​ 

Bishop pine was once also considered to grow on Baja California's Cedros and Guadalupe islands, but my understanding is that the species on Cedros island is a variety of Monterey pine. More.

Needles are in bundles of two, and are three to five inches long. Egg-shaped cones can be up to four inches long, with prickles. They cluster around the stems, but in my observation, they usually don't make as distinct a cluster as those on knobcone pine. Cones weather from reddish brown to gray, and usually remain tightly closed. Bark is furrowed and dark gray with fissures which may have orangish color.

In the early aughts, I went to Point Reyes to see how the bishop pines rebounded from the 1995 Mount Vision fire. This photo from Limantour Road shows an abundance of trees about six feet tall, and you can see the ocean beyond. In 2017, at the same spot on Limantour Road, the trees were 15 or more feet tall and totally cut off the view of the ocean.

SFGate update from 2005 here.

NPS Information about the fire here.

Snags of burned bishop pines with vigorous new growth below. Photo taken about 2005.

PORT ORFORD-CEDAR