Information from multiple sources has been consolidated and generalized, e.g., one might find trees outside of the specified elevation and geographic limits. Generally elevation decreases as latitude increases. Likewise commonly found height descriptions are given, but trees can grow much larger in favorable situations, and some trees have a shrubby form at high elevations or seacoast. Diameter (DBH), refers to diameter at about 4.5 feet, diameter at breast height.

I have relied extensively on the books and websites listed below.



Arno, S. (1973 ). Discovering Sierra Trees

Farmer, J. (2013). Trees in Paradise

Griffin, J. & Critchfield, W. (1972). The Distribution of Forest Trees in California

Holland, V. & Keil, D. (1995). California Vegetation

Johnston, V. (1994). California Forests and Woodlands: A Natural History

Kauffmann, M. (2012). Conifer Country

                        (2013). Conifers of the Pacific Slope

Keator, G. “A Grand Tour of Northern California’s Conifers (Part I),” Fremontia, Vol. 14, No. 1, April, 1986

                  “A Tour of Northern California’s Conifers (Part II),” Fremontia, Vol. 15, No. 4, January, 1988

Lanner, R. (2007). The Bristlecone Book 

                  (1999). Conifers of California

                  (1996). Made for Each Other: A Symbiosis of Birds and Pines

                  (1981). The Piñon Pine, A Natural and Cultural History

Muir, J. (1878 & 1881). The Coniferous Forests and Big Trees of the Sierra Nevada

Sawyer, J. (2006). Northwest California: A Natural History

Sudworth, G. (1908, 1967). Forest Trees of the Pacific Slope

Turner, M. & Kuhlmann, E. (2014). Trees and Shrubs of the Pacific Northwest